Adaptive immune responses following Senecavirus A infection in pigs

Journal of Virology


Senecavirus A (SVA), an emerging picornavirus of swine, causes vesicular disease (VD) that is clinically indistinguishable from foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in pigs. Many aspects of SVA interactions with the host and the host immune responses to infection, however, remain unknown. In the present study, humoral and cellular immune responses to SVA were evaluated following infection in pigs. We show that SVA infection elicited an early and robust virus-neutralizing (VN) antibody response, which coincided and was strongly correlated with VP2- and VP3-specific IgM responses. Notably, the neutralizing antibody (NA) responses paralleled the reduction of viremia and resolution of the disease. Analysis of the major porcine T-cell subsets revealed that during the acute/clinical phase of SVA infection (14 days postinfection [p.i.]), T-cell responses were characterized by an increased frequency of αβ T cells, especially CD4+ T cells, which were first detected by day 7 p.i. and increased in frequency until day 14 p.i. Additionally, the frequency of CD8+ and double-positive CD4+ CD8+ T cells (effector/memory T cells) expressing interferon gamma (IFN-γ) or proliferating in response to SVA antigen stimulation increased after day 10 p.i. Results presented here show that SVA elicits B- and T-cell activation early upon infection, with IgM antibody levels being correlated with early neutralizing activity against the virus and peak B- and T-cell responses paralleling clinical resolution of the disease. The work provides important insights into the immunological events that follow SVA infection in the natural host.