A novel bovine papillomavirus type in the genus Dyokappapapillomavirus

Archives of Virology


Papillomaviruses are a diverse group of viruses that are known to infect a wide range of animal species. Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs) are divided into at least 21 genotypes (BPV1 to BPV21), with most BPV isolates/strains described to date belonging to one of four genera, including Deltapapillomavirus, Xipapillomavirus, Epsilonpapillomavirus and Dyoxipapillomavirus. Here, we describe the identification and genetic characterization of a new BPV type in the genus Dyokappapapillomavirus. A farm in the state of New York, USA, reported chronic cases of vulvovaginitis in Holstein cows in 2016. Biopsies and/or swab samples collected from the vaginal mucosa were subjected to diagnostic investigation. Conventional diagnostic assays yielded negative results, and vaginal swab samples were subjected to viral metagenomic sequencing. Notably, BLAST searches revealed a papillomavirus genome with 7480 bp in length (67% nt sequence identity to BPV16). Additionally, phylogenetic analysis of the L1 gene of the papillomavirus identified here (tentatively named BPV22) revealed that it clusters with members of the genus Dyokappapapillomavirus. Interestingly, the recently identified BPV16, which was detected in fibropapilloma lesions in cattle also clusters within the Dyokappapapillomavirus group. Each virus, however, forms a separate branch in the phylogenetic tree. These results indicate that the putative BPV22 represents the second BPV within the genus Dyokappapapillomavirus.