Study on the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in calves and HIV infected humans in the periphery of river basins of Kathmandu valley

International Journal of Infection and Microbiology


Introduction: Cryptosporidium is an important zoonotic pathogen transmitted primarily through water. This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in calves and humans in relation to the river water in the river basins of Kathmandu.

Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted from Sept 2012 to Feb 2013. A total of 100 fecal samples (50 calves and 50 HIV/AIDS patients living near the river basins of Kathmandu) were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium by Ziehl-Neelsen Staining technique after Modified Sheather concentration method with centrifugation.

Results: Overall 32% calves and 18% humans were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts, calves having higher chances of being infected than humans (P < 0.05). The prevalence was higher in Manohara River basin than Bagmati River basin (P >0.05). Among calves, the samples from Manohara periphery had higher prevalence than Bagmati periphery (P< 0.05). Likewise, the prevalence was higher in 4-6 months aged calves (P < 0.05) and in males (P < 0.05). Among the human samples, the females were at lower risk (odds ratio, 0.44) and 0-20 years of age group had highest prevalence (P < 0.05). Humans from periphery of Manohara were at higher risk than from Bagmati (Odds ratio, 4.94).

Conclusions: Cryptosporidium has been identified in calves and HIV/AIDS patients residing in the periphery of Manohara and Bagmati river basins of Kathmandu valley suggesting the occurrence of zoonotic transmission. Cryptosporidiosis should be included in the differential diagnosis for the case of diarrhea in humans and domestic animals.